Fixing the mysqli_real_escape_string() Error: Solving the 2 Parameters Expectation Issue

In this guide, we'll explore how to fix the mysqli_real_escape_string() error, which involves solving the issue of expecting two parameters. This error is commonly experienced by developers when working with MySQL databases and PHP. By following the step-by-step solution provided in this documentation, you can effectively resolve this error and prevent it from occurring in the future.

Table of Contents

  1. Understanding the mysqli_real_escape_string() Function
  2. Identifying the 2 Parameters Expectation Issue
  3. Step-by-Step Solution
  4. FAQ
  5. Related Links

Understanding the mysqli_real_escape_string() Function

The mysqli_real_escape_string() function is used to create a legal SQL string that can be safely used in an SQL query. It escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement, taking into account the current character set of the connection.

The function is essential in preventing SQL injection attacks, as it helps sanitize user input data before inserting it into the database.

string mysqli_real_escape_string ( mysqli $link , string $unescaped_string )


  • $link: A MySQL connection object, returned by the mysqli_connect() function.
  • $unescaped_string: The input string containing special characters that need to be escaped.

Return Value

The function returns the escaped string or FALSE on error.

Learn more about mysqli_real_escape_string() at

Identifying the 2 Parameters Expectation Issue

The error usually occurs when the mysqli_real_escape_string() function is called with only one parameter instead of the required two parameters. The function expects both the connection object and the input string to be provided.


// Incorrect usage - missing $link parameter
$escaped_string = mysqli_real_escape_string($unescaped_string);

Error Message:

Warning: mysqli_real_escape_string() expects exactly 2 parameters, 1 given in ...

Step-by-Step Solution

To fix the mysqli_real_escape_string() error, follow these steps:

  1. Identify the line of code where the error occurs.
  2. Ensure that you are providing both required parameters: the MySQL connection object ($link) and the input string ($unescaped_string).
  3. Modify the function call to include both parameters.


// Connect to the database
$link = mysqli_connect("localhost", "username", "password", "database");

// The input string
$unescaped_string = "Hello, 'World!";

// Correct usage - providing both $link and $unescaped_string parameters
$escaped_string = mysqli_real_escape_string($link, $unescaped_string);

// Now you can safely use $escaped_string in an SQL query

By providing both required parameters, the error should be resolved. Remember to always provide the connection object and input string when using the mysqli_real_escape_string() function.


Q: What is SQL Injection?

SQL Injection is a code injection technique that attackers use to insert malicious SQL code into input fields, with the intent of gaining unauthorized access or manipulating the database.

Q: Why is it important to use mysqli_real_escape_string()?

Using mysqli_real_escape_string() helps prevent SQL injection attacks by escaping special characters in user input data, making it safe to use in SQL queries.

Q: Can I use mysqli_real_escape_string() with other character sets?

Yes, the mysqli_real_escape_string() function takes into account the current character set of the connection when escaping the input string.

Q: Are there any alternatives to mysqli_real_escape_string()?

Yes, you can use prepared statements with the mysqli_stmt_bind_param() function, which automatically escapes user input data and provides better security against SQL injection attacks.

Q: Is the mysqli extension required to use mysqli_real_escape_string()?

Yes, the mysqli extension is required to use mysqli_real_escape_string(). Make sure your PHP installation includes the mysqli extension.

Great! You’ve successfully signed up.

Welcome back! You've successfully signed in.

You've successfully subscribed to

Success! Check your email for magic link to sign-in.

Success! Your billing info has been updated.

Your billing was not updated.