In this guide, we will explore the ORA-00060 error, the root causes behind it, and the steps to resolve the deadlock issue in Oracle Database. This comprehensive guide is designed to provide valuable and relevant information for developers and administrators who are dealing with this error.
Table of Contents
- Understanding ORA-00060 Error
- Common Causes of Deadlocks
- Step-by-Step Guide to Resolving ORA-00060
- Related Links
Understanding ORA-00060 Error
The ORA-00060 error occurs when Oracle detects a deadlock situation while waiting for a resource. A deadlock is a situation in which two or more competing actions are waiting for each other to finish, and neither can proceed. The error message typically looks like this:
ORA-00060: Deadlock detected while waiting for resource.
Oracle Database automatically detects deadlocks and resolves them by rolling back one of the involved transactions, which releases the resources held by that transaction and allows other transactions to proceed.
Common Causes of Deadlocks
There are several common causes of deadlocks in Oracle Database:
Circular wait: This occurs when two or more sessions are waiting for resources held by each other. For example, session A holds a lock on resource 1 and is waiting for a lock on resource 2, while session B holds a lock on resource 2 and is waiting for a lock on resource 1.
Unindexed foreign keys: If a foreign key constraint is not indexed, it can lead to a deadlock situation during concurrent DML operations on the parent and child tables.
Poorly designed application logic: Applications that do not properly manage locks or use inappropriate locking mechanisms can cause deadlocks.
- Incorrect use of explicit locks: Explicitly locking tables or rows using the
SELECT FOR UPDATE, or
DBMS_LOCKpackage can lead to deadlocks if not used correctly.
Step-by-Step Guide to Resolving ORA-00060
Follow these steps to resolve the ORA-00060 error:
Step 1: Analyze the Deadlock Trace File
When Oracle detects a deadlock, it creates a trace file with detailed information about the deadlock. The trace file is located in the
USER_DUMP_DEST directory and has a
.trc extension. You can use the
DBMS_UTILITY package to find the location of the trace files:
SELECT VALUE FROM V$DIAG_INFO WHERE NAME = 'Diag Trace';
Once you locate the trace file, open it and analyze the information. The trace file contains the SQL statements and objects involved in the deadlock, as well as the sessions and resources involved.
Step 2: Identify the Cause of the Deadlock
Based on the information in the trace file, identify the cause of the deadlock. Check for circular waits, unindexed foreign keys, poorly designed application logic, or incorrect use of explicit locks.
Step 3: Implement the Solution
Depending on the cause of the deadlock, implement the appropriate solution:
Circular wait: Reorder the SQL statements or redesign the application logic to avoid circular waits. For example, ensure that all sessions lock resources in the same order.
Unindexed foreign keys: Create indexes on foreign key columns to prevent deadlocks during concurrent DML operations.
Poorly designed application logic: Review and modify the application logic to ensure proper lock management and avoid deadlocks.
- Incorrect use of explicit locks: Review the use of explicit locks in the application and ensure proper usage to prevent deadlocks.
Step 4: Test the Solution
After implementing the solution, test the application to ensure that the deadlock issue is resolved.
How does Oracle resolve deadlocks automatically?
Oracle automatically detects deadlocks and resolves them by rolling back one of the involved transactions. This releases the resources held by that transaction and allows other transactions to proceed.
What are the common causes of deadlocks?
Common causes of deadlocks include circular waits, unindexed foreign keys, poorly designed application logic, and incorrect use of explicit locks.
How can I prevent deadlocks in Oracle Database?
To prevent deadlocks in Oracle Database, ensure proper lock management in your application, create indexes on foreign key columns, and avoid circular waits and incorrect use of explicit locks.
What is a circular wait?
A circular wait occurs when two or more sessions are waiting for resources held by each other, creating a cycle of dependency that prevents any of them from proceeding.
Can I use Oracle's built-in packages to detect and resolve deadlocks?
Oracle provides the
DBMS_LOCK package to help manage locks in your application. However, proper lock management and application design are essential to avoid deadlocks in the first place.