# Understanding the Type and Hexadecimal Representation of the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' Instruction: A Comprehensive Guide

In this guide, we will discuss the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction used in the MIPS Assembly language. We will cover the instruction type, hexadecimal representation, and a step-by-step breakdown of the encoding process. By the end, you should have a clear understanding of how this instruction works and how to represent it in hexadecimal format.

## Introduction to MIPS Assembly Language

MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture that is widely used in embedded systems and academic settings. MIPS assembly language is a low-level programming language used to program MIPS processors.

For more information on MIPS Assembly Language, refer to the following resources:

## Understanding the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' Instruction

The 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction is a Store Word (SW) instruction used to store a word (32 bits) of data from a source register (\$t1) into memory. The memory address is calculated by adding the contents of the base register (\$t2) to an immediate offset value (32 in this case).

The general format of the SW instruction is:

``````sw source_register, offset(base_register)
``````

In our example, the instruction 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' stores the contents of register \$t1 into the memory address resulting from adding 32 to the contents of register \$t2.

## Instruction Encoding

MIPS instructions are 32 bits long and follow a specific encoding format. For SW instructions, the encoding format is:

``````opcode (6 bits) | base_register (5 bits) | source_register (5 bits) | immediate_offset (16 bits)
``````

### Register Number Representation

In the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction, the source register is \$t1 and the base register is \$t2. MIPS registers have corresponding register numbers. For \$t1 and \$t2, their register numbers are:

• \$t1: Register number 9
• \$t2: Register number 10

To encode the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction in hexadecimal, follow these steps:

1. Determine the opcode for the SW instruction. The opcode for SW is `101011`.
2. Convert the register numbers for \$t1 and \$t2 to their 5-bit binary representation:
• \$t1: `01001`
• \$t2: `01010`
1. Convert the immediate offset (32) to its 16-bit binary representation: `0000000000100000`
2. Concatenate the opcode, base_register, source_register, and immediate_offset: `101011 01010 01001 0000000000100000`
3. Convert the binary representation to hexadecimal: `0xAC490020`

So, the hexadecimal representation of the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction is `0xAC490020`.

## FAQ

### What is the purpose of the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction?

The 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction is used to store the contents of register \$t1 into a memory address specified by the sum of the contents of register \$t2 and the immediate offset (32).

### How is the memory address in 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' calculated?

The memory address is calculated by adding the contents of the base register (\$t2) to the immediate offset (32).

### What is the size of the data being stored by the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction?

The 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction stores a word (32 bits) of data.

### What is the opcode for the SW instruction?

The opcode for the SW instruction is `101011`.

### How do I convert the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction to hexadecimal?

To convert the 'sw \$t1, 32(\$t2)' instruction to hexadecimal, follow these steps:

1. Determine the opcode for the SW instruction.
2. Convert the register numbers for \$t1 and \$t2 to binary.
3. Convert the immediate offset (32) to binary.
4. Concatenate the opcode, base_register, source_register, and immediate_offset.
5. Convert the binary representation to hexadecimal.

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