Troubleshooting the mysqli_query() Error: Resolving the 'Expects at Least 2 Parameters, 1 Given' Issue in PHP

In this guide, we will discuss how to troubleshoot and resolve the mysqli_query() error that states 'Expects at least 2 parameters, 1 given' in PHP. This error usually occurs when the mysqli_query() function is not used correctly.

Table of Contents

Understanding the mysqli_query() Function

The mysqli_query() function is used to perform queries against a MySQL database in PHP. It requires two parameters:

  1. A MySQL connection object, which is returned by the mysqli_connect() function.
  2. A query string containing the SQL statement to be executed.

The syntax for the mysqli_query() function is as follows:

mysqli_query(connection, query);

For more information on the mysqli_query() function, refer to the official PHP documentation.

Identifying the Issue

The 'Expects at least 2 parameters, 1 given' error occurs when you pass only one parameter to the mysqli_query() function, which is usually the SQL query string. The function expects the MySQL connection object as the first parameter, followed by the query string as the second parameter.

Here is an example of incorrect usage that would trigger the error:

$query = "SELECT * FROM users";
$result = mysqli_query($query);

Step-by-Step Solution

To resolve the 'Expects at least 2 parameters, 1 given' error, follow these steps:

  1. Make sure you have a valid MySQL connection using the mysqli_connect() function.
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "database_name";

// Create connection
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);

// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
    die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
  1. Pass the MySQL connection object ($conn) as the first parameter to the mysqli_query() function, followed by the query string as the second parameter.
$query = "SELECT * FROM users";
$result = mysqli_query($conn, $query);
  1. Verify that the error no longer occurs.

By providing both required parameters, the 'Expects at least 2 parameters, 1 given' error should no longer appear, and your code should now execute properly.


1. Can I use the mysqli_query() function with other databases?

No, the mysqli_query() function is specifically designed for MySQL databases. If you need to interact with other database systems, such as PostgreSQL, you should use the appropriate PHP functions or libraries for that database system.

2. How do I handle errors returned by the mysqli_query() function?

You can use the mysqli_error() function to display a detailed error message. For example:

$result = mysqli_query($conn, $query);
if (!$result) {
    die("Query failed: " . mysqli_error($conn));

3. Can I execute multiple queries using the mysqli_query() function?

No, the mysqli_query() function can execute only one query at a time. To execute multiple queries, you can use the mysqli_multi_query() function.

4. Is it safe to use user input directly in the mysqli_query() function?

No, using user input directly in an SQL query can expose your application to SQL injection attacks. You should always validate and sanitize user input before using it in a query. You can use the mysqli_real_escape_string() function to sanitize user input.

5. Can I use the mysqli_query() function in object-oriented programming (OOP) style?

Yes, you can use the object-oriented style by calling the query() method on a mysqli object. For example:

$mysqli = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
$result = $mysqli->query($query);

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